Photo Album of Demon Abalam: 2nd Ruler Hell or Reptilian Lord? (Photo Essay Book 17)

Buer was briefly detailed in Fiendish Codex II: Physically, Buer resembles a bariaur with gleaming silver skin and white hair. His eyes, horns, and hooves are scarlet. From his hips grow six 10' long prehensile tentacles, dripping with acidic bile. Buer is a vassal of Asmodeus, commanding 15 companies of pit fiends. Bune was briefly detailed in Fiendish Codex II: Bune generally resembles a cornugon in appearance, but his scaled body is green in hue coppery on the belly and loins , and his talons are silvery in color.

Bune's head, however, is human—with dog-like furry ears and a great griffon-like beak. His voice is high-pitched and lilting, although he will screech if he becomes infuriated, and he is an excellent mimic of other beings. Chamo was briefly detailed in Fiendish Codex II: Chamo appears as a white-haired, middle-aged man with big brown eyes. He has upward-pointing horns, black hooves, a forked tail, and black bat-like wings. His skin is scarlet, darkening to blue on his long-nailed hands.

He usually wears loose black robes with a high stand-up collar. Chamo is a vassal of Belial, acting as Belial's legate. Cozbinaer's name is inspired by the name of a pagan priestess of Jewish mythology named Cozbi. Cozbi was briefly detailed in Fiendish Codex II: Cozbinaer is described as an exquisitely beautiful she-devil with fair skin, long green hair and a chalk-white body gradually reddening from the chest down.

She also had long black nails, a slim pointed tail she would hang over one arm, and vampire-like fangs for canine teeth. Her eyes were scarlet. Cozbinaer was perhaps the weakest and quietest of all Hell's duchesses. However, she took being called "Cozbi" by anyone not of her kin as a major offense. Any non- baatezu that did so was never seen alive again. She was extremely loyal to Geryon, and her devotion bordered closely to what mortals know as love.

However, this very behaviour ended up being her demise, as did Geryon's faithfulness to Asmodeus. Cozbinaer was exiled to Avernus along with her master and his loyal lieutenant Amon upon the Reckoning of Hell. As soon as they entered the layer, Geryon's followers were attacked by Levistus 's followers who slew the major part of Geryon's court. Cozbinaer has been horribly wounded during these conflicts and then appeared as a zombie-like harridan whose body was covered in scars, skin grafts and withered flesh.

Though she should have died long ago from her wounds, she was kept alive through profane magic and hellish technology and spent her time in a glass chamber where a poisonous yellow gas was funneled by tubes. If she had to leave this room, she wore a bizarre armored suit that contained the same gas, which was deadly to anyone but her. The location of the room itself was unknown. The circumstances of her death are yet to be revealed. She either couldn't sustain herself any longer or someone eventually found the room where she laid and destroyed the apparatus.

Dispater was one of the few arch-devils that retained his position after the Reckoning of Hell. Dispater is lord of Dis, the Second Plane of Hell. His symbol is a fortress embossed on a reinforced metal shield. Dispater stands at seven feet tall, is evilly handsome and looks human except for his small horns, tail, and cloven left hoof.

Dispater is incredibly cautious to the point of paranoia. He always has at least nine different back up plans for any situation. He is also always polite and calm even in very troubling and stressful situations. Dispater's iron tower is itself a powerful magic item which makes Dispater almost impossible to kill as long as he remains inside it. Dispater never leaves his tower unless forced, most notably for the yearly council with Asmodeus which all the Archdevils are required to attend. Dispater first appears in the first edition Monster Manual Dispater is the sworn enemy of Baalzebul and is allied with Mephistopheles and as such most of his plans focus on the destruction of Baalzebul.

His consort is Lilis. The following beings are among the most notable subjects of Dispater. Dispater's cult appeals to those who value stability as much as cruelty. They tend to build impregnable fortresses, carefully reviewing defensive protocol and possible escape plans.

They include many hobgoblins , goblins , and similar humanoids. Clerics of Dispater wear gray clothing and conceal their faces behind iron masks. They wield heavy maces and are usually heavily armored. Disciples of Dispater verge on paranoia and are distrustful of all around them. According to Fiendish Codex II: Tyrants of the Nine Hells, when Asmodeus created Baator , he, Mephistopheles , and Dispater were the first of the baatezu to set foot on the plane. Dispater has controlled Dis ever since. Thousands of years ago, Dispater helped broker the pact between Tiamat 's red dragon consort Ephelomon and Gith , first leader of the githyanki.

In return, he claimed Gith's soul, which he has kept imprisoned in his iron city ever since. In the Reckoning , Dispater's legendary tower was the first to be attacked and was laid siege to by Zariel. However, Mammon managed to help Dispater beat the besieging army back and then they both invaded Maladomini to attack Baalzebul.

After the Reckoning, Dispater retained his position as ruler of Dis. He is still an ally of Mephistopheles and he, Mephistopheles, Baalzebul, and Belial form the only two real alliances in Hell. In the adventure Fires of Dis, Dispater was behind a plot to ruin a noble crusading paladin and prevent the ascension of the gate-town of Fortitude.

Princes of Darkness , on page 9. He is also called simply the Unnamed. Gary Gygax's son Ernie originally had a character he called "Erac", in addition to other well-known characters Serten and Tenser. Later, he created a wizard who, due to a personal issue as part of his backstory , refused to reveal his name, simply referring to himself as "Erac's Cousin". Gary Gygax knew that Ernie liked the Barsoom stories of Edgar Rice Burroughs , and at one point, whisked Erac's Cousin off to a very Barsoom-like Mars, [41] where the inhabitants refused to let the wizard use magic. Erac's Cousin was forced to become a fighter instead, and learned to fight proficiently with two weapons simultaneously.

Eventually he was able to teleport back to Oerth, but when he acquired two vorpal blades, co- Dungeon Masters Rob Kuntz and Gary Gygax decided he had become too powerful, [41] and lured him into a demon's clutches. The demon took him to an alternative plane that drained the magic from the vorpal blades, destroying them. Erac's Cousin was a mage who was able to wield swords with great proficiency.

He was seldom seen without a red-eyed rat on his shoulder, his imp familiar. He commanded an army including 50 medium cavalry, 50 light cavalry, 50 light horse archers, heavy infantry regulars, heavy archer regulars, and pole armed infantry regulars. Many of his troops were rumored to be evil humanoids. The Unnamed may have been reborn as a greater devil. Erac's Cousin was once a lawful good human magic-user.

He gave up being a spellcaster to become a fighter with a penchant for wielding a pair of vorpal swords. In one adventure, Erac's Cousin and his cleric companion Ayelerach are purported to have stumbled upon the stone prison of the demon prince Fraz-Urb'luu in the dungeons below Castle Greyhawk.

The Prince of Deception, with his honeyed words, tricked the pair into reading from a scroll that released the demon from his prison. The two hapless adventurers were then whisked away by Fraz-Urb'luu to his layer on the Abyss to become his slaves, and the vorpal swords were destroyed.

Erac's Cousin and Ayelerach were eventually able to return to the Material Plane , but describe the Abyssal realm they visited as depressing and sickening, due to its totally flat and featureless terrain, and ability to drain the magic out of any item. Upon his escape from the Abyss, an unknown form of insanity overtook Erac's Cousin and he slew all of his friends to steal their possessions, forsaking his former deity who he blamed for not saving him from the demon prince.

Erac's Cousin, now thoroughly evil, made a pact with the archdevil Baalzebul. As a reward for the souls of those he slew, Baalzebul agreed to make Erac's Cousin into a major devil upon his death, despite Erac's Cousin's fear of dying. There is speculation [45] that Erac's Cousin may have helped form the Horned Society. Many of the Hierarchs were killed by Iuz 's vengeance, but one was able to return. This being, known only as the "Unnameable Hierarch" was reborn as a greater devil thanks to a pact with the archfiend Baalzebul.

She is the daughter of arch-Duke Belial and his late consort Naome , and currently shares the rulership with her father. Her unholy symbol, like that of Belial, involves red, glowing eyes over a two-pronged ranseur, surrounded by a red tail with a wicked barb. Fierna was first identified as the ruler of Phlegethos in Dragon November She has a very sexual personality and wears very little clothing. Focalor is a Duke of Hell in the service of Mammon. He wears an iron gauntlet on his right hand as his badge of office. Focalor is a vassal of Mammon, acting as Mammon's seneschal.

Gaziel has a white, skull-like head with hollow eye sockets and small, curling pink horns, so that from a distance he resembles an osyluth. He has a brown to blood-red hued humanoid body, a red forked tail, and black hooves. His tongue is long, slim, purple-red, and forked. His wrists and knees have bulbous, bony joints, and his elbows have hooked spurs.

Gaziel is a vassal of Belial, who leads 21 companies of osyluths bone devils. Gazra the pit fiend is a general and commander of the hamatulas. Gazra is the consort of Fierna. Gazra is jealous and hateful toward Belial , but keeps those feelings well hidden. Glasya is a powerful devil and a Princess of Hell Baator in 2nd edition version of the game. She is noted to be one of the most powerful and influential of the female devils.

Her symbol is a copper scourge. Glasya made her first appearance in Dragon 75, in an article that served as a preview of the then upcoming first edition Monster Manual II. She has copper-colored skin and dark red or black hair. She appears human except that she has bat-like wings, horns, and a forked tail. Glasya is the daughter of the Overlord of the Hells, Asmodeus , and his deceased queen, Bensozia. Her bruise-coloured skin, covered in pimples and varicose veins , constantly seeped with foul blood.

Her horrid, gaunt face sported a nearly toothless mouth that smelled of carrion. She also has two large black feathery wings. Despite her decrepit form, the Hag Countess was actually very powerful. His head is larger than a pit fiend's proportionately, and his wings are smaller. His hide is a deep rust-red hue, and bathed in crackling lightning and electricity. He carries a writhing trident.

His unholy symbol is a sword thrust through a block of ice, or a cauldron with chunks of ice floating in it. Levistus was first identified as the ruler of Stygia in Planes of Law , [23] and was further described in Dragon November Aside from his completely black eyes, pointed teeth and his height, no features betray his infernal descent. Lilis is the consort of Dispater , the ruler of Dis, the second layer of Baator. She is sometimes referred to as the Iron Maiden. Lilis was briefly detailed in Fiendish Codex II: Lilis is described as an orange-skinned, middle-aged, plump she-devil.

She stands 5' tall and sports glowing green eyes. She looks well-preserved and has the usual baatezu 's features bat wings, cloven hooves, forked tail et cetera. Lilis is said to be one of the most knowledgeable beings in Baator. She runs a large network of spies and informants throughout the Nine Hells for her master, who stands as the sole recipient of her intelligence, as she will not even share such information with the King of Hell, Asmodeus. She also runs a smaller network among mortals and in evil and neutral-aligned planes. Though Lilis is one of the weakest consorts physically, her careful and very prudent strategies, her attention to detail, and Dispater's protection have allowed her to retain her position as safely as any.

Lilis is the only consort Dispater has ever had throughout his existence, which makes her also one of the oldest consorts of the Nine Hells. Since she's aware of almost anything that happens in Baator from gossip to hidden conspiracies and major schemes , not a single she-devil has ever tried to depose her. Lilith is the current consort of Baalzebul , the arch-lord currently ruling the Seventh Layer of the Nine Hells of Baator , Maladomini.

She shares the title with the subservient and rather spineless Baftis , another she-devil who wields little power. She looks like a scarlet-skinned human female with a serpent's tail. Her hooves and small curved horns betray her nature. She never wears clothing, and cloaks herself in a veil of darkness. She often uses a barbed whip in battle. Machalas appears as a tall, thin humanoid with black, scaly skin, a black forked tail, black cloven hooves, large black batlike wings, and large jaws.

His horned head is a startling fiery red, and his eyes are slanted and entirely white, so that they appear to have no pupils or irises unless examined very closely. His face appears ugly and batlike the jaws most prominent , and his voice is a soft, menacing, hissing tone. Machalas was formerly a vassal of Geryon, commanding 11 companies of hamatulas barbed devils.

He presently serves Levistus. Martinet is a pit fiend and Duke of Hell in the service of Asmodeus as his constable. Martinet's job is to clean up the frequent political messes of Baator. His influence has stopped several wars from breaking out among the lords, and his diplomacy has ended even more conflicts. Martinet has an extremely level head, and he never flies off the handle.

While he is not greatly powerful himself, he is feared because others know he is the voice and mouth of the Dark Lord of Nessus. Martinet served as the escort for Asmodeus' consort Bensozia as she was leading a routine inspection of the layers. While they were traveling across Stygia, Levistus ambushed them and proposed that the Queen of Hell become his consort if she helped him depose Asmodeus. The staunch queen refused harshly and passed him by.

Infuriated, the Lord of the Fifth killed Bensozia and her pit-fiend bodyguards while Martinet managed to escape. In 4th edition, Martinet was escorting Bensozia through her inspection of the middle hells when she was murdered by her own daughter, Glasya. Martinet was responsible for framing Levistus for the crime and securing Glasya during the Reckoning of Hell. Mephistopheles or Mephisto for short is the lord of Cania, the eighth plane of Hell. He was the main opponent of Baalzebul during the Reckoning of Hell , and still holds a claim to his own lair.

He seeks to take Baalzebul's lair away from him, that he may gain enough power to one day challenge Asmodeus for rulership of all the Nine Hells. His symbol is a flame made of copper and gold, or a red hand with black fingernails shrouded in dark flames. He is constantly coming up with new symbols. Moloch is an arch-devil of Hell Baator in later editions of the game , and once served as the viceroy of Baalzebul. His limbs are short and thick, and his hands and feet are huge and square, with horns on his feet.

His head is also horned, and huge with slanting fiery eyes and a gaping mouth. His monstrous body conceals a genius-level intellect. Morax is a Duke of Hell in the service of Asmodeus. Morax is a cloven-hooved, humanoid devil. He has a bull-like head, with massive curved horns somewhat like Moloch , bat-like wings, and heavily muscled arms.

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He has a short forked tail. His entire body is a dark, dirty brown in hue, and his eyes are scarlet. He has a cluster of 2-inch-long spines on his chest, and in battle loves to hug victims against this cluster. Morax is a vassal of Asmodeus, commanding 9 companies of pit fiends. She is the mother of Lady Fierna , Belial's daughter who is currently ruling the layer. Naome is derived from a real-life mythological demon who sports the same name. Naome was briefly detailed in Fiendish Codex II: Naome has been successively described as a golden skinned she-devil of great beauty and then as a red-skinned, husky female devil with human-flesh-colored hands, face and shoulders, aside from typical baatezu features cloven hooves, forked tail etc.

These patterns may suggest she's the one responsible for anything regarding dealing with humans and mortals. Naome was a skilled seductress and very effective in terms of communication and diplomacy. She was Lady Fierna's personal advisor and was highly regarded for her ability to settle disputes and her shrewdness when bargaining with mortals.

Quite surprisingly, she had a very light, pleasant humor, which is a very rare thing among the Dukes of Baator. While she had no real enemy in the Nine Hells, she disliked Glasya and Lilith but was quite friendly to the quiet Baftis , and she felt sympathy for the grim-fated Cozbinaer. Although not as powerful as her master, Naome's role at Belial's court was very important.

It's been said that, as the Reckoning of Hell ended, she advised her consort into placing their daughter on the throne and using her to rule Phlegethos, in order to avoid demotion from Asmodeus. This maneuver has proven to be quite efficient and Naome constantly acted behind the scenes alongside Belial. Naome met her death at the hands of Asmodeus himself. As of Dragon , it has been explained that Asmodeus eventually found out the truth behind Belial's voluntary withdrawal.

Not being able to get rid of Belial anymore, Asmodeus decided to punish Naome for being too cunning for his tastes and destroyed her. This last action earned him a bitter grudge from Belial and Fierna. While rumors go that Belial and Lady Fierna are having an incestuous relationship , it seemed that Naome was unconcerned. Another rumor was that she was actually of undetermined gender, explaining her mannish build.

Neabaz is a Duke of Hell in the service of Baalzebul. Neabaz appears as a smoothly polite, cold-blooded, and very handsome man—save for his tiny pointed horns and transparent, housefly-like wings. He is customarily garbed in black tunic open at the shoulders to accommodate his wings and breeches, with a hat and cape of rich, blood-red silk.

The cape is magical, having the ability to give forth an aura of flames. When his human-like mouth is open, he can extrude a foot-long proboscis from within and suck blood. Neabaz serves as Baalzebul's herald. He wears open purple or black robes, and a belt to carry his whip. Phongor is a vassal of Asmodeus, serving as Asmodeus's inquisitor. Phongor is a rival of Adramalech , and has subverted some of Adramalech's spies. Phongor and Adramalech both feuded with Armaros before he was exiled as an outcast devil and made one of the Rabble of Devilkin.

Rimmon is a Duke of Hell in the service of Asmodeus. Rimmon commands 5 companies of gelugons ice devils. Rimmon appears as a gelugon with a handsome, human-like diabolic horned head. Tartach is a Duke of Hell in the service of Glasya. He is a powerful spellcaster, said to be one of the most dangerous workers of magic in the Nine Hells and certainly the most potent in Malbolge , except possibly for Glasya herself.

Tartach is currently Glasya's chamberlain and consort. He was formerly a servant of Moloch and Baalzebul , and briefly entered into an alliance with Geryon. Zagum is a Duke of Hell in the service of Asmodeus, he commands 30 companies of hamatula barbed devils. Zagum appears as a gigantic hamatula with a fifteen foot long tail and a jagged row of barbed spines running up his back, cumulating in a bony collar edged with spines at the back and sides of his head. His scaled skin is crimson, his eyes yellow and catlike.

His sense of humor and avoidance of cruelty which he considers self-indulgent mask a cold-blooded personality. Zepar appears as a slight, dark-complexioned man dressed in scarlet armor, with a grotesque clubfoot and a forked tail. He has small horns concealed by his helm and speaks in a grating, contemptuous voice. Beneath his armor is crimson skin, and a "normal" human foot that has retractile black catlike claws. Zepar is a vassal of Baalzebul, commanding 28 companies of cornugons horned devils.

He was nearly slain by Nisroch, for which Nisroch was sentenced to become one of the Rabble of Devilkin. True to their Lawful Evil alignment, devils are locked in a strict and brutal hierarchy changing form as they work their way up the ladder of power. At the top of the hierarchy are the supreme Archdevils or Lords of the Nine, who are the rulers of the different regions of Baator.

This list does not include books designed for use as premade adventures. This literature-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. In the 2nd Edition, the demon lords were known as "Abyssal lords". Abraxas dwells on the 17th layer of the Abyss, known as Death's Reward. Abraxas was one of many demon lords that were mentioned only by name in a list in the original Monster Manual II As in Armies of the Abyss, Abraxas's realm is called the Pleroma here, and it is said to be a superficially pleasant and beautiful realm whose true appearance is masked by illusions.

Abraxas rules from the spiral city of Diovengia, which is filled with demons, libraries, and serpents and guarded by mariliths. Instead of the chaste ascetics of Armies of the Abyss, however, his cultists in this book are drow and keepers of forbidden lore who mainta The male equivalent is an incubus. Publication history The succubus is based on the succubi from Western medieval legend. Codex of the Immortals" An ancient Netherese deity of order and the sun, Amaunator was also revered as the patron of law and time.

Amaunator appeared as a lanky man with silver-white hair, a short, week-long growth of white beard, and skin that glowed with a quiet golden radiance.

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His symbol is a sun with a face on the solar disk. He was long considered to be a dead deity, but was revealed to be Lathander in the 4th edition For This is a list of Dungeons and Dragons fiction in the form of novels and short stories. However, despite their variety, a number of traits are common to nearly all types of dragons. All species appear to be generally reptilian or serpentine in their natural form.

Except for the yo The demons are chaotic evil by nature, and are native to the Abyss. Demons have no true rulers, though powerful demon lords are able to gain enough power and influence to gain control over sizable armies of demonic creatures. The 4th edition was pu His exact nature varies from publication to publication; he is alternately presented as an evil god or a powerful devil. Publication history Creative origins Asmodeus is named after a Judeo-Christian demon of the same name, from the Book of Tobit, and for a fallen angel of the same name who appears in John Milton's "Paradise Lost.

He is named after Orcus of Roman mythology. His symbol is a mace with a human skull as the head. Game statistics for Orcu These include various races of demons and devils that are of an evil alignment and hail from the Lower Planes. All fiends are extraplanar outsiders. The most common types Demons The most widespread race of fiends are the demons, a chaotic evil race native to the Abyss; they are rapacious, cruel and arbitrary.

The dominant race of demons is the tanar'ri. The Abyss and its population are both theoretically infinite in size. Demon lords and demon princes such as Orcus, Demogorgon, Zuggtmoy, Graz'zt and countless others rule over the demons of their individual layers of the Abyss, in as much as the chaotic demons can be ruled over. Devils The devils, of The game has received negative coverage, especially during the game's early years in the early s. Part of the controversies concern the game and its alleged impact on those who play it, while others concern business issues at the game's original publisher, TSR.

The game is now owned by Wizards of the Coast. Later she converts to Christianity and rejects the game, burning the materials and avoiding Hell, which is explicitly stated Instead it was inspired partly by myth, and partly by a regenerating troll that appears in Poul Anderson's Three Hearts and Three Lions.

Several new varieties of In further supplements it was clarified that Tieflings were usually descended from fiends but not the same as half-fiends, since a Tiefling's fiendish ancestry lies further up the family tree. This description remained true in 3rd Edition. The game is set on the unexplored continent of Xen'drik within the Eberron campaign setting, and in the Kingdom of Cormyr within the Forgotten Realms campaign setting. Xen'drik is a vastly unexplored locale, once the center of the Advance The barghest is portrayed as a goblin-like creature that comes from the plane of Gehenna to feed on humans.

These evil creatures can change form to appear as a dog or wolf, or a large goblin at will. Publication history As a game monster, the barghest appeared in Dragon magazine 26 in Although Dragon 26 does not credit the author, a response to a letter in Dragon 30 confirms that Gary Gygax created the barghest.

It was first published in by Tactical Studies Rules, Inc. The game has been published by Wizards of the Coast now a subsidiary of Hasbro since It was derived from miniature wargames with a variation of Chainmail serving as the initial rule system. These characters embark upon imaginary adventures within a fantasy setting. A Dungeon Master serves as the game's referee and storyteller while maintaining the setting in which the adventures occur, and playing the role of the inhabitants. The characters form a party that interacts with the setting's inhabitants, and each other.

The golem first appeared in the original Greyhawk supplement written by Gary Gygax and Robert J. Golems are magical constructs made of inert matter animated by high-level spellcasters through the use of powerful spells during magical rituals. The main aspect differentiating one type of golem from another is the material from which it is built. There are four standard types of golems, from weakest to strongest: The flesh golem is created from human remains, and the others are created from earthen components: Virtually any material can be used to create a golem, and hundreds of different types of such creatures have been described for one edition or another of t As a category of creature, they are comparable to devils and demons.

In the third edition of the Forgotten Realms, they are native to the "Blood Rift" plane. Publication history Yugoloths were originally called daemons in the first edition of Dungeons and Dragons. Descriptions for the Nycadaemon and Mezzodaemon appear in the Vault of the Drow module published in In that module, they are random encounter monsters in the city of Erelhei-Cinlu, the stronghold of the Drow. Along with other monsters, the Nycadaemon and Mezzodaemon were published in the Fiend Folio in They are able to move among all the lower planes at will.

Along with demons and devils, their names were changed in the second edition of Dungeons and Dragons to avoid conflict with fundamentalist Christ Also included are monsters originally printed in The Strategic Review, as well as some originally found in early issues of The Dragon such as the anhkheg and remorhaz , and other early game materials. This book also expanded on the original mo Originally created for the World of Greyhawk campaign setting, he was later made part of the generic "core pantheon" for the game's third edition.

Since his campaign was largely built around the needs of lower-level characters, he didn't think specific deities were necessary, since direct interaction between a god and a low-level character was very unlikely. However, some of the players wanted a specific deity so that cleric characters could receive their powers from someone less ambiguous than "the gods". Gygax, with tongue in cheek, created two gods: Cuthbert—and Cuthbert brought non-believers around to his This is a list of notable demons that appear in works of fiction, not limited to writing or to entertainment purposes.

For example, some are from video games and some are from Dante's Inferno. List of theological demons covers those from religion, theology, demonology, and mythology; the sacred and its study. Names of God, list of deities, and list of fictional deities cover God and gods in various ways. List of legendary creatures may also help explain what is not here. Some demons may be in both the fictional and theological lists.

Many demons have names with several spellings but few are listed under more than one spelling. Every listing should include a parenthetical reference, usually one with a blue link. The creature is named for the cambion. The amount and type of matches determine which of the six monsters on the player's team attack the waves of enemy monsters and how much damage they do. An additional layer of challenge is the acquisition, selection, and improvement of a team of monsters from among thousands ranging from standard fantasy fare, to deities from several religions and mythologies and characters from popular entertainment franchises.

The game is free-to-play and financed by the sale of in-game currency. It is a commercial success in Japan, where it was downloaded 32 million times by November , and was released in other Asian countries as well as in North America and many European countries. This is a list of dragons in games. If there are many dragons then only the most notable are mentioned. Dragons in video games Guide to Roles: Player character - The dragon is the main character controlled by the player through all or most of the game. Playable character - The dragon is a character that if selected can be controlled.

Companion - The dragon is a character that usually follows the player and can often be controlled as a riding mount. Boss - The dragon is a boss to be defeated by the player. Final Boss - The dragon is the final boss in the game. Optional Boss - The dragon is an optional boss. Playable Character Transformation - The dragon is an alternate form the player's character can take. Enemy - The dragon is a general enemy in the game. Trainable Monster - The dragon is a monster used in a battle in an arena against another monster.

Supporting Character - The dragon helps the player at points throughout the game. Unit - The dragon is a controllable battle unit in the game. An owlbear is depicted as a cross between a bear and an owl, which "hugs" like a bear and attacks with its beak. Inspired by a plastic toy made in Hong Kong,[2] Gary Gygax created the owlbear and introduced the creature to the game in the Greyhawk supplement;[3] the creature has since appeared in every subsequent edition of the game.

Owlbears, or similar beasts, also appear in several other fantasy role-playing games, video games and other media. In order to give his players as many different challenges as possible, Gygax was always on the look-out for new monsters. Although he was able to draw on pulp fiction and sword and sorcery stories for many of them, he also looked through dime stores for figurines that could be used in battle. On one of those Most of these deities appear in both the Greyhawk and Forgotten Realms campaign settings, and each setting has nonhuman gods which do not appear in the other setting.

Ward presented a section with over 20 nonhuman deities from races such as bugbears, centaurs, dwarves, elves, giants, gnomes, goblins, halflings, hobgobli Mammon is the lord of Minauros, the Third Plane of Hell, and he was able to retain this position after the Reckoning of Hell. In keeping with the traditional use of the name in literature, he is portrayed as a personification of greed and lust. He also has a well-earned reputation for duplicity.

Creative origins Mammon is named after the Biblical Mammon. The fey deities are associated with the Seelie Court and the Unseelie Court. Titania is the general fey deity, with individual races like the Killmoulis who worship Caoimhin. Fey are usually humanoid in form and generally have supernatural abilities and a connection to nature. The Sylph is one creature which has a Fae appearance, but is officially recognized as an outsider creature type.

The source material includes two templates for players who wish to have crossbred characters incorporating fey traits. The first is the Half Fey, a cross between a fey and a human or giant. Feytouched are one quarter fey, the result of a crossbreeding between a Half Fey and a human or giant. All feytouched have at least one feature or characteristic that is out of the norm, including vibrantly colored hair, feathered eyebrows, or a propensity for speaking in rhyme, for example, and are charismatic. The feytouched template appeare Half-orcs are typically born in wild frontiers where human and orc tribes come into contact.

This makes them less bulky and more agile than pure-bred orcs, but still taller and stronger than most humans. Half-orcs have pale green skin, jutting jaws, prominent teeth and coarse body-hair. Tolkien, as the result of crossbreeding Dunlendings with Isengard Orcs. There was also another type called Goblin-men which were also said to be This list of dragons is subsidiary to the list of fictional animals and is a collection of various notable draconic characters that appear in various works of fiction.

It is limited to well-referenced examples of dragons in literature, film, television, comics, animation and video games. Guardian of the Nibelungen gold; slain by Siegfried. From Norse mythology's 'Fafnir'. Tolkien The greatest of the winged dragons. Created by the Dark Lord Melkor. Each demon lord has a unique appearance and set of abilities. Most control at least one layer of the Abyss. A demon lord, when slain in a plane other than the Abyss, is banished to the Abyss for years, whereas "ordinary" demons, including the mightiest balors and mariliths, risk being reborn into a lesser form or not at all.

The most powerful demon lords are demon princes. The pumping of blood by human heart is because of the force provided by the contraction of cardiac muscles. Muscular system has the following important functions in human body; 1. Skeletal muscles are responsible for all voluntary movements of human body parts. They provide the force by contracting actively at the expense of energy. In other words, muscles are motors of body where chemical energy of food is converted into mechanical work.

Skeletal muscles stabilize human skeleton and give a proper posture to human beings. Some joints of human body are weak and they require the support of muscular system to achieve stability. Skeletal muscles are very important for such joints. As a result of high metabolic rate, muscles produce great amount of heat in the body.

Heat produced by muscles is very important in cold climates. Cardiac muscles provide the main force for circulation of blood throughout human body. The regular pumping of heat keeps the blood in motion and nutrients are readily available to every tissue of human body. Smooth muscles of organs like stomach and intestine help the digestive system in the process of digestion of food. Components Brain Centeral part of nervous system, Controls all body functions Spinal Cord Long and thin bundle of nervous tissue extending from lower part of brain, transmits neural signals between brain and rest of the body Nerves A bundle of peripheral axons enclosed by connective tissue.

Carries nervous signals from nervous system to body and from body to nervous system Nerve Endings Motor and sensory neurons end in special type of structures depending on their function. It controls and regulates all voluntary and involuntary activities of human body. There are three characteristic properties of nervous system of human body; Sensitivity, Conductivity and Responsiveness Neuron is the unit of nervous system: The structural and functional unit of nervous system is called neuron.

It is a special type of cell with a cell body and cell processes. Parts of nervous system: Central nervous system includes brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system includes all the parts of nervous system except brain and spinal cord. It is further divided into two components; Somatic nervous system and Autonomic nervous system.

Nerves are solid cords composed of bundles of nerve fibers each nerve fiber is an axon with its coverings bound together by connective tissue. Nerves are of two types; Spinal nerves and Cranial Nerves. Spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in human body. Cranial NervesCranial nerves arise from the brain. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves in human body. Functions of nervous system: Nervous system is the master system of human body. It controls the activity of all other systems in such a way that all the systems collectively make a human being.

Without a controlling system, there is no concept of life because in such case there will be no coordination between different body functions and they will all act separately. Nervous system not only controls the voluntary functions of human body that are directed by human will, but it also controls those functions that are below the level of consciousness of human beings.

Control of a function means that the intensity of that function can be increase or decreased according to the demands of human body. Nervous system not only produces coordination between different systems, but also between different organs of a system. To form an organ system, role of the component organs must also be coordinated.

So nervous system is not only important for formation of an organism by different organ systems, but also for formation of a system by different organs of human body. Components Nose The most external organ, air is inhaled and exhaled through nose, has different mechanisms for cleaning and condensing the inhaled air Larynx Also known as sound box, formed of cartilages, connects the tracheo to the laryngopharynx Trachea Tubular structure with about 1 inch diameter, composed of C shaped cartilages that keep it dilated Bronchi Left and Right dividions of trachea, enters the lungs and divide into secondary bronchi Lungs Main organs of respiration, two in number one on each side of heart Conical in shape, divided into lobes Parts Conductive Parts Parts of respiratory system where exhcange of gases does not take place, include Nose, larynx, trachea, and bronchi.

Respiratory System Respiratory system is the system of respiratory passages, lungs and respiratory muscles of human body. Respiratory system is responsible for exchange of gases between the human body and the surroundings. In the process of exchange of gases, human body gains oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. Other gases of the atmosphere have no significant role in human respiratory system.

Respiratory system is extremely important for human body because the process of respiration cannot be stropped even for a few seconds. If the process of respiration stops even for a minute or two, the condition will become serious and will ultimately end in death. Organs of human respiratory system: The main organs of human respiratory system are lungs and respiratory passages. Muscles of respiration also form a component of respiratory system but there importance is rather little as compared to lungs and respiratory passages.

Lungs are the organs of human body where gaseous exchange take place. Human beings have two lungs known as the right and left lungs. Lungs are soft, spongy and very elastic. Respiratory passages or air-ways are the conducting portions of human respiratory system. Here no exchange of gases take place, but they guide the air to go to the lungs and not anywhere else in the body.

Conducting portion of the human respiratory system consists of; Traches, Bronchi, Bronchioles, Alveolar sacs and Alveoli. Lungs and Conductive passages Functions of Respiratory System: Main function of respiratory system is gaseous exchange. Through respiratory system new air is always brought into the body and used air is expelled out. In this way oxygen is gained and carbon dioxide is lost by the body. Respiratory system is the major system for excretion of carbon dioxide from the body.

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Carbon dioxide is produced as a result of metabolic break down of carbohydrates in body and must be eliminated quickly. Carbon dioxide is brought to the lungs by blood and is lost from the lungs through gaseous exchange with fresh air in lungs. Oxygen is required by the body for break down of food and must be continuously supplied for continuous supply of energy. Supply of oxygen is maintained by respiratory system. Components Heart Hollow muscular organ providing the force for flow of blood thoroughout human body Blood Vessels Pathways of blood flow in human body, hollow tubes, of 3 types Arteries Carry blood away from heart to other body parts, very muscular and elastic Capillaries Microscopic blood vessels where exchange of nutrients with tissues take place Veins Carry blood towards the heart from other body parts, their walls are thinner as compared to corresponding arteries.

Blood Special type of body tissue that is in fluid form, consists of the following components; Plasma Blood cells White Blood Cells Red Blood Cells Platelets Functions Provide nutrients to body parts, Remove excretory Products from body parts, Protects body against infection, Distribution of heat. Introduction to Cardiovascular System: Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular system means the system of heart and blood vessels of human body. So the name itself indicates that cardiovascular systems is the system of heart and blood vessels. Components Of Cardiovascular System: Cardiovascular system is made up of three major components; Heart, Blood vessels and blood.

Heart is a hollow muscular organ made of strong cardiac muscles. Heart can push the blood through the circulatory system with great force. In fact push of the heart is the major force that causes circulation of blood throughout human body. Heart is made up of three layers; Pericardium, Myocardium and Endocardium. Human beings have a closed type of circulatory system visit my blog post: Difference between open and closed circulatory systems in which blood does not come in direct contact with body tissues.

Instead the blood flows in restricted pathways called blood vessels. Materials are exchanged between blood and body tissues through the walls of blood vessels. Thus blood vessels are pathways of blood flow in human body. There are three main types of blood vessels; Arteries, Capillaries and Veins. For more details on types of blood vessels, visit: Blood is a specialized tissue of body that exists in fluid form. It is one of the five basic types of tissues of human body. Basic tissue types of Human Body. Blood consists of two major portions: Blood cells and Plasma. Plasma is the watery portion of blood that makes it a fluid.

Blood cells are of three main types: For more information on composition of blood, visit: Perfectly functioning Cardiovascular system is so important for human body, that if it stops for a minute, rapid death will occur. The flow of blood is necessary for existence of life. If the flow of blood is stopped, life will stop. Heart is the main organ of cardiovascular system and it is responsible for distributing blood all over human body.

This explains that most people in the united stated die because of heart diseases and elaborates the importance of heart and Cardiovascular system for human body. Components Lymph vessels Carry lymph from tissue spaces to the venous system, starts blindly as lymph capillaries in tissue spaces, their walls are permeable to substances of much greater size Central Lymphoid Tissues Bone Marrow Produces all pluripotent lymphoid cells in adults , helps in differentiation of B-Lymphocytes Thymus Helps in differentiation of T-Lymphocytes Peripheral Lymphoid Organs Lymph node Small nodules of lymphoid tissue found in the course of smaller lymph vessels, purify the lymph from harmful agents Spleen Removes old blood cells from circulating pool, Keeps a reserve of blood for emergency, Synthesizes antibodies Epithelio-lymphoid tissues Lymphoid nodules in places like alimentary canal and respiratory tracts, Works as a security check agains all the incoming agents.

Lymphocytes Mature B- and T-Lymphocytes circulating in blood, protects the body against any infectious agent that enters the blood Functions Removal of particulate matter, Production of lymphocytes, Generation of immune responses Introduction to Lymphatic System: At arterial ends of capillaries fluid leaks out and at the venous end, it is absorbed back in. Some of the fluid remains in the tissue spaces.

This fluid is called lymph and the system by which this lymph is returned back to blood is called lymphatic system. In addition to its drainage function, lymphatic system is also an effective defense system of the body because some organs of the lymphatic system lympho-reticular organs are involved in defense activities of the body. Components of lymphatic system: Lymphatic system is composed of the following important components.

Lymph vessels are pathways for flow of lymph around the body. Lymph vessels begin as lymph capillaries that begin blindly in tissue spaces and lead to larger lymph vessels. Lymph vessels do not arise from avascular structures, brain, spinal cord, bone marrow and splenic pulp. Larger lymph vessels anastomose freely with one another and they ultimately drain the lymph into the venous system. Central lymphoid tissue consists of bone marrow and thymus. Peripheral lymphoid organs are lymph nodes, spleen and epithelio-lymphoid tissues lymphoid tissue present in epithelium e. It contains mature progenies of T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes.

They form the first line of defense of the body during antigenic emergencies. For more details on components of Lymphatic system visit: Functions of Lymphatic System: Lymph capillaries absorb and remove large protein molecules and other particulate matter from tissue spaces. In this way cellular debris and other harmful particles are washed away. Lymph nodes act as filter for the lymph and in this way they purify the lymph flowing through them. Antigens are removed from lymph by phagocytic activity of cells of lymph node. Mature B-lymphocytes and mature T-lymphocytes are produced in lymph nodes.

Lymphatic system can induce both cellular and humoral immune responses. Endocrine System Endocrine system is the system of glands of human body. Each of these glands secretes one or more different hormones in the blood for different functions. The secretions of endocrine glands are known as hormones. Each endocrine gland may secrete one or more hormones in the blood and these hormones may or may not have related functions. Generally the hormones regulate different functions of human body like growth, mood, development, and metabolism etc.

The perform their function by attaching to the target cells and then communicating with them. Endocrine glands are ductless glands of human body that pour their secretions hormones directly into the blood. They have three characteristic features that are: They are ductless 2. They are highly vascularized 3. The see a detailed explanation of difference between endocrine glands and exocrine glands, visit: Endocrine glands of Human Body: These glands have primary function of producing hormones for human body. Typical endocrine glands include; 1. These organs primarily belong to some other system of the body but have a secondary function of producing hormones.

As stated above, endocrine system is a regulatory system of human body. In fact it associates the nervous system in controlling body functions. The control of body function by the nervous system is called nervous coordination and the control of body functions by the endocrine system is called chemical coordination. The control of body functions by the endocrine system is a long term control system. All the necessary changes and adaptations of the body, required for the long term control of a specific function, are influenced by the hormonal system.

Components Necessary Organs Oral cavity It is the cavity of mouth, irregular in shape, contains tongue, teeth and salivary glands, Esophagus Muscular tube passing the food from pharynx to stomach Stomach Muscular, hollow and dialted part of alimentary canal, involved in both mechanical and chemical digestion of food, secretes strong acid and enzymes to aid in digestion of food Small Intestine Lies between stomach and large intestine, majority of digestion and absorption takes place here, About 5 meters in length Large Intestine Second-to-last part of alimentary canal, main function is to absorb water from indigestible food.

Anus Last part of alimentary canal, opens to outside for ejestion of food, Controls the expulsion of feces Accessory Organs Liver Produces bile for emulsification of fats Pancreas Secretes pancreatic juice containing different digestive enzymes into the small intestine Teeth Chewing and mastication of food Tongue Rolling and lubrication of food Functions Digestion and absorption of food Introduction to Digestive System: Digestive System Digestive system is the food processing system of human body.

The whole digestive system is in the form of a long, hollow, twisted and turned tube, called the alimentary canal, which starts from the oral cavity and ends at the anus. The overall process of digestion and absorption of food occurs in this tube. The tube is divided into different parts on the basis of structure and function of each part. These parts are described below. Parts of digestive system: Human digestive system consists of the two categories of parts. The first category consists of those organs that are directly involved in the process of digestion and absorption.

The second category consists of those organs that aid the process of digestion and absorption of food by producing chemical substances or by some other way, but are not directly involved in the process of digestion and absorption. When the accessory organs fail to perform their functions completely, the process of digestion may also completely stop. Necessary Organs Of the digestive system: As stated above, digestive system is the food processing system of human body. The food taken by human beings is digested into simpler molecules that can be absorbed into the blood and utilized for various functions of human body.

As the digestive system is the only route of intake of nutrients in normal conditions , therefore necessarily all the nutrient requirements of human body are fulfilled by this system alone. If the digestive system is impaired for some reason, health of the affected individual will seriously decline Urinary System Outline: Components Kidneys Kidneys are two bean shaped organs lying close to the lumbar spine on either side, they are multifunction organ, form urine and control its concentration Ureters Two hollow muscular tubes one arising from each kidney and ending at the urinary bladder, connect kidneys to the bladder Urinary Bladder Stores urine before it is excreted from the body, hollow muscular and distensible organ, sits on the pelvic floor.

Urethra A tube connecting the urinaly bladder to the genitals for excretion Functions Excretion of nitrogenous wastes, Osmoregulation, Acid-Base balance Introduction to Urinary System: It is the system of production, storage and elimination of urine. Formation and elimination of urine is important for human body because urine contains nitrogenous wastes of the body that must be eliminated to maintain homeostasis.

Nitrogenous wastes are formed by metabolic activities in the cells. These nitrogenous wastes along with excess of salts and water are combined in the kidneys to form urine. Urinary system is important for keeping the internal environment of the body clean. Urinary system maintains proper homeostasis of water, salts and nitrogenous wastes.

Components of urinary system: Human urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder, a urethra and sphincter muscles. Kidneys are the major organs of urinary system. Formation of urine takes place in kidneys which are two bean shaped organs lying close to the lumbar spine, one on each side of the body. These are muscular tubes extending from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Urine flows in these tubes from kidney to the urinary bladder. Urinary Bladder collects urine before it is excreted from the body.

Urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the external genitalia for elimination from the body. There are two sphincter muscles to control the elimination of urine from human body. The external of the two muscles is striated and is under voluntary control of the body. Functions of urinary system: As stated above, urinary system is the excretory system of human body. It performs the following important functions; 1. The main function of urinary system is formation and elimination of urine. Urine is formed by the kidneys in 3 steps; 1 Glomerular Filtration, 2 Tubular reabsorption, and 3 Tubular secretion.

Kidneys are important osmoregulatory organs of human body. THey maintain salt and water balance of the body. If the concentration of salt or water is increased above normal, kidney will excrete the excess amount. If the concentration is decreased, kidneys will reduce the loss of water and salts in urine. Kidneys are important regulators of pH of body fluids. Kidneys keep the pH balanced within a very small range and provide an optimum environment for all processes of life.

The Integumentary system is the organ system that protects human body from damage. It consists of skin and its appendages, which include hair, nails, and sweat glands etc. It forms about 16 percent of the weight of human body. The Integumentary system has a variety of functions. Male Reproductive System Outline: Components Penis Male copulatory organ having a long shaft and a bulbous tip, transfers the semen into the femal reproductive tract Testes Components of both reproductive system and endocrine system, produce semen that ocntains sperms Functions Fertilization of females to produce offspring Introduction to Male Reproductive System: Male Reproductive System Source: Reproduction is the capacity of all living organisms to give rise to their babies that are similar to them.

In human beings, sexual type of reproduction takes place and for this type of reproduction, male and female reproductive systems are required. Male reproductive system is mainly concerned with production of semen whitish viscous fluid emitted from the male reproductive tract that contains sperm and fluids and transferring it into the female reproductive tract. Organs of male reproductive system: The organs of male reproductive system are penis and testes.

Penis is the external sexual organ of male human beings. In addition to the reproductive role, it also serves as the excretory organ through which urine is expelled out of the body. Testes are components of both reproductive and endocrine system. For reproductive system they produce sperm and for endocrine system they produce male sex hormones like testosterone. Functions of the male reproductive system: As stated above, male reproductive system is mainly concerned with production of semen and its transfer to the female reproductive tract.

Testes, that are organs of male reproductive system, also produce male sex hormones that distinguish maleness from femaleness. Reproduction is the process through which life continues to exist. Every individual has a limited life span and no one can survive for ever. For the survival of life, reproduction is a necessary process because otherwise no new life will be formed and old life will disappear.

So both reproductive systems, whether male or female, are important for survival of life. Female Reproductive System Outline: Components Internal Parts Uterus Major female reproductive organ, one end called cervix opens into vagina and other end is connected to the fallopian tubes, Development of fetus occurs within uterus Ovaries Two in number, Egg producing female reproductive organ, oval in shape and ovary of each side is locatd in the ovarian fossa of corresponding side of pelvis External Parts Vulva External genital organ of females, contains the opening of vagina Labia Structures of skin and adipose tissue that extends on both sides of vulva Clitoris Button like portion near the labia minora, erects on sexual arousement Functions Recieve the sperms from male reproductive system, Bear the developin fetus through the entire period of gestation Introduction to Female Reproductive System: Female Reproductive System Female reproductive system is the system of reproduction in female human beings.

The female reproductive system is complex as compared to the male reproductive system. Females have to bear fetus during fetal period of development within their bodies. Modifications and adaptations to bear the fetus makes female reproductive system more complex. The female body also shows certain adaptations to become capable of bearing the fetus for nine months. Main role of female reproductive system is to produce eggs and allow the process of fertilization and development to take place within their body.

The organs of female reproductive system are; Organs of female reproductive system: Female reproductive system consists internal and external parts.

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Internal parts are the functional parts of female reproductive system. There are two main internal parts; the uterus and the ovaries. Uterus also known as womb is the major reproductive organ of females. It hosts the developing fetus, produces secretions of the female reproductive system and allow the passage of sperms to fallopian tubes where sperms fertilize with eggs.

Ovaries are small paired organs located near the pelvic cavity of females. Ovaries produce the female egg cells. External parts are accessory parts of female reproductive system. They help in the process of fertilization, and parturition etc. As stated above, female reproductive system is mainly concerned with production of eggs and bearing the fetus throughout the developmental phase. The ovaries produce eggs, which are fertilized by sperms and zygote is formed. The development of zygote to a complete human baby takes place in female reproductive system.

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Early approaches to heart malformationsIn operations on the heart valves were unknown. Henry Souttar operated successfully on a young woman with mitral stenosis. He made an opening in the appendage of the left atrium and inserted a finger into this chamber in order to palpate and explore the damaged mitral valve. In four surgeons carried out successful operations for mitral stenosis resulting from rheumatic fever. Horace Smithy — of Charlotte, revived an operation due to Dr Dwight Harken of the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital using a punch to remove a portion of the mitral valve.

All these men started work independently of each other, within a few months. It was soon discovered by Dr. Bigelow of the University of Toronto that the repair of intracardiac pathologies was better done with a bloodless and motionless environment, which means that the heart should be stopped and drained of blood. The first successful intracardiac correction of a congenital heart defect using hypothermia was performed by Dr.

Walton Lillehei and Dr. John Lewis at the University of Minnesota on September 2, The following year, Soviet surgeon Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Vishnevskiy conducted the first cardiac surgery under local anesthesia. During this surgery, the heart is exposed and the patient's blood is made to bypass it. Surgeons realized the limitations of hypothermia— complex intracardiac repairs take more time and the patient needs blood flow to the body, particularly to the brain. The patient needs the function of the heart and lungs provided by an artificial method, hence the term cardiopulmonary bypass.

John Heysham Gibbon at Jefferson Medical School in Philadelphia reported in the first successful use of extracorporeal circulation by means of an oxygenator, but he abandoned the method, disappointed by subsequent failures. Lillehei realized a successful series of operations with the controlled cross-circulation technique in which the patient's mother or father was used as a 'heart-lung machine'.

Kirklin at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota started using a Gibbon type pump-oxygenator in a series of successful operations, and was soon followed by surgeons in various parts of the world. The operation was a success; however, Nix died three years later in The transplant was successful, but Rogers, a cancer sufferer, died from an infection 54 days after surgery. Modern beating-heart surgerySince the s, surgeons have begun to perform "off-pump bypass surgery" — coronary artery bypass surgery without the aforementioned cardiopulmonary bypass. In these operations, the heart is beating during surgery, but is stabilized to provide an almost still work area in which to connect the conduit vessel that bypasses the blockage; in the U.

Some researchers believe that the off-pump approach results in fewer post-operative complications, such as postperfusion syndrome, and better overall results. Study results are controversial as of , the surgeon's preference and hospital results still play a major role. This is where a machine is used to perform surgery while being controlled by the heart surgeon. The main advantage to this is the size of the incision made in the patient.

Instead of an incision being at least big enough for the surgeon to put his hands inside, it does not have to be bigger than 3 small holes for the robot's much smaller hands to get through. Nelson performed the first successful pediatric cardiac operation at the Salt Lake General Hospital in March , a total repair of tetralogy of Fallot in a four-year-old girl. All the plots of the installments in the Silent Hill series, except Shattered Memories', share a common setting. Silent Hill, Silent Hill 2, 3, 4, Origins, Homecoming, and Downpour's plots are set in the foggy rural American town of Silent Hill, which is a fictitious location, and a dark alternate dimension called the "Otherworld";[22] both the town and the dimension exist in a multiverse consisting of reality and the Otherworld.

The series' player characters experience occasional shifts between the real world and the Otherworld. In the latter, lack of application of physical laws can occur,[23] with the dimension having a varying form but most frequently assuming one whose physical appearance is based on that of Silent Hill, and the series' characters experiencing delusions and encountering tangible symbols of elements from their unconscious minds, mental states, and innermost thoughts when present in it,[23][24] as well as when they are in the real world.

The origin of these manifestations is a maleficent power native to Silent Hill, which materializes human thoughts; this force was formerly non-evil, but was corrupted by the occurrence of certain events in the area. Shattered Memories' plot is set in an alternate fictional universe, which features the town of Silent Hill and another alternate dimension, which is icy, known as "Nightmare". Another recurring plot trait in the Silent Hill series is a fictitious religious secret society officially named "Silent Hill Smile Support Society", but known as "the Order" by the town's population.

The organization has certain members who act as antagonists in most of the series' installments and maintains a false public image as a charity organization which operates an orphanage. The Room, certain of these endings are joke endings in which the main protagonist comes in contact with unidentified flying objects. The symbols are images, sounds, objects, creatures, or situations, and represent concepts and facts, as well as feelings, emotions, and mental states of the characters.

NET, a new programming language based on Microsoft. NET technology, claims faster and easier development that saves time and money. This article gives an introductory, practical look at programming in C. To fully utilize the C language capabilities for test and measurement, you need to have a good understanding of how this language interacts with the Microsoft. With a thorough discussion of C and the object-oriented approach, this article explores how Microsoft C impacts Visual Studio programming and whether or not it's right for your test and measurement application development.

Table of Contents The. Background Information What is C? NET languages, and Visual Studio.

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NET, supports multiple languages, which allows for cross-platform applications. In order for this to work, a common element must exist through all. To be considered a. The goals of the CLR are: Simplified application development Multiple programming language support Good performance and scalability A safe and reliable execution environment Simplified deployment The CLR consists of an execution engine, a garbage collector, just-in-time JIT compiler, a security system, and the.

All of the CLS-compliant -- or. MSIL is machine-independent and can offer benefits including just-in-time compilation, metadata, and more. NET applications are constructed from Assemblies, a compiled and versioned collection of code and metadata that forms a functional unit. All Assemblies contain information stored in something called a Manifest, which contains the Assembly name, version, dependencies, associated files, and exported features for more informative versioning.

Another feature of Microsoft. NET technology that directly relates to C is the. This library consists of more than 2, classes whose functionality you can access from all of the. The library is made up of four main parts: NET framework details, while permitting access to system-level functions if the developer needs it.

Because Microsoft created C specifically for. NET, it inherently takes advantage of the. Microsoft built C from the ground up with the. It is a strongly typed language in which everything is an object. The core features of C were derived from C-like languages. C unifies the type system by defining every type in the language as an object. Whether using a struct, a class, or an array, the developer will use it as an object. Think of an object as a way to describe a relationship. For a real-world example, think of a ball. A ball has certain characteristics as well as behaviors.

A ball has a color, shape, and size that can be thought of as characteristics or variables. A ball also has associated functions, or behaviors, such as bouncing and rolling. NET, objects have characteristics and behaviors. Each C program has at least one class. This class encapsulates data or variables , and behaviors or methods. Related classes are grouped into namespaces. This grouping enforces organization and clarity. Objects are combined into namespaces as well. For example, instead of listing include files at the beginning of all of your programs like so: NET technology and want to know how.

In the past, it was quite difficult to manage a Windows PC because of the complexity of the applications. In addition, unclean uninstallations and associated, shared files caused headaches in the removal and inclusion of applications. Many of these activities caused an unstable PC and potentially resulted in a reinstall of the operating system.

Microsoft addressed many of these reliability and stability issues with. Applications no longer rely on the registry information, removing registry-related headaches. NET Framework, applications are self-describing and allow developers to run different versions of a DLL on the same machine, side by side. In addition, rather than the operating system, the CLR executes languages that produce managed code. Because of this, the CLR can perform many safety checks such as memory management, garbage collection, and type safety.

This layer adds a level to the programming platform, and this higher abstraction brings more safety and security. This results in more consistency because all languages use a similar class library which in turn enables multiple language interoperability. Debugging and Data Types While you can get around some of the new debugging features, you should build executables using a Debug configuration. With JIT debugging, you can build and run without entering the debugger. If there is an exception, you can view where it occurs. However, at this point you cannot add break-points or step through the code.

To typically debug, you can use standard debugging. This option allows breakpoints, variable watching, and single stepping. C is a strongly typed language, which improves reliability over other languages. With untyped programming languages, such as VBScript and other scripting languages, you do not declare data types for variables. With this syntax, you can check for runtime errors but will not find compile time errors.

C has addressed this lack of compile-time checking. The term "strongly typed" means that every variable in C has an associated data type. This pertains to variables, globals, and constants. This strong type indicates an error if certain conversions are declared.

C takes the safe approach and alerts the developer when it makes assignments between two variables of different types. In addition to explicit declarations, C as in Java specifies the exact size of an integer type. This inconsistency can lead to unreliable behavior. Managed Code and Additional Features C managed code improves reliability in the. Managed code is code that targets. NET technology and contains certain extra information, called metadata, to describe itself. Both managed and unmanaged code can run in the. However, only managed code makes it possible for the runtime to guarantee proper functionality, including safe execution and interoperability.

With managed code, comes managed data. The CLR offers certain additional features to assist with cleaner programming, such as memory allocation and deallocation, as well as garbage collection. NET languages, including Visual Basic. Note that the CLR safety checks and manages data to provide safer development and more meaningful debugging messages. C introduces new functionality in structures, arrays, and more. C includes all of the usual structures: However, C also includes break, continue, and goto statements and introduces a foreach structure that Visual Basic programmers are used to seeing.

This loop is used for iterating through collections and is convenient when iterating through arrays. C views arrays as a special type of collection. The foreachstructure iterates through arrays with a very concise syntax, without subscripts. For example, to iterate through this array in C , you may do the following: Many times, a developer forgets the break statement and the program flows into the next case. C has additional features to catch common mistakes and save time in the long run.

Save Time Over Previous Visual Studio Versions So, how do all of these new features, frameworks, and improvements apply to the test, measurement, and automation industry? A few of the Microsoft. NET Framework components, such as server technology, do not directly affect the typical test and measurement developer, while others, such as the Visual Studio. As many of the features below help the test and measurement developer, you should note that C , as well as the other. NET languages, is a general-purpose programming language. For test and measurement specific applications, add-in components, such as NI Measurement Studio, are recommended for more efficient development.

Shorter DevelopmentTime Microsoft not only designed C to take advantage of the. NET Framework, but also to decrease development time. To achieve this goal, Microsoft modeled it after Visual Basic. C and Visual Basic. NET contain almost 90 percent identical feature sets. Simpler Deployment One time-saving feature of C is how applications are deployed using the language. This assembly is self-describing and contains all the information, which is typically stored in the registry, in a single place to ensure that the code and its description information do not lose conformity.

These assemblies use versioning so you can enhance your applications while maintaining older versions. Another benefit with versioning is that you can execute both versions simultaneously without interfering with one another. C is an attribute-based programming language. First introduced in Microsoft Transaction Server, an attribute-based language implements complex tasks such as distributed transaction. The developer simply declares general requirements. The benefit is that these attributes implement the task for the developer -- attribute-based programming eases much of the complexity and actually creates code for the task.

Without C , the attributes are separate from the program source code. Thus, when the source code is modified, the attribute information may become out of sync with the code. With C , and other. NET languages, attributes are part of the source code, eliminating incompatibility issues. In C , when a developer compiles these attributes into intermediate language, the attributes become part of the metadata. NET Framework actually provides several attribute types, including the synchronization, serializable, and custom attributes for a flexible solution.

For building test and measurement applications, you can add NI Measurement Studio. NET-compatible components for integrating data acquisition, instruments, analysis and visualization more rapidly. NET Framework provides extensive support for multiple thread programming, C is a well-designed tool for these applications. The idea of multithreading is the same in C -- to allow multiple concurrent execution paths with multiple CPUs, to achieve parallel processing, and to gain greater efficiency on single processor machines.

However, there are some drawbacks associated with multi-threading. For example, certain multiple threaded applications can result in more complex applications and race conditions. With C , you use the system threading namespace for greater simplicity. The setup is organized in the thread class, which encapsulates a thread of extension. This organization helps with the complexity of the application as the information is contained in the core thread class. To address the race condition issue, you should serialize access to the shared data or synchronize with the C join method.

Again, these two options are available in the system-threading namespace. For example, when you first open a Visual Basic 6. NET , the Upgrade Wizard appears. Microsoft also provides a command-line tool for upgrading projects outside of the Visual Studio environment. The upgrading tools modify the code within your project to comply with Visual Basic. NET syntax and replace any forms and controls with Visual Basic. Due to the differences between Visual Basic 6. NET, some things in your project may not map directly. In these cases, Microsoft provides an upgrade report to guide you through the modification of your application.

For this reason, Microsoft offers white papers on how to prepare your legacy applications for upgrading. Keep in mind, upgrading to Visual Basic. NET may not benefit all Visual Basic 6. COM It is possible for. In other words, you can call a COM component from a. NET language and vice versa. To call a legacy COM component from a. NET proxy for calling that component. C automatically calls this tool when you add a reference to a COM component. There are many similar benefits between COM and.

NET technology, but many differences in the implementation of those technologies. For example, with COM, you must provide an elaborate infrastructure to implement the component. You must implement a class factory to create COM objects, implement the methods to dynamically check the interface, and manually implement the proper memory management. With C the CLR automates these processes. You create the object with one command, check for an interface, and the garbage collector takes care of memory management for you, simplifying COM component creation. Safer Programming With safer programming and less run-time errors, you can save development time and decrease maintenance costs by shipping your application with fewer bugs.

With the managed code in C , the CLR can perform checks for type safety, memory overwrites, memory management and garbage collection. This results in a reduction of memory leaks and related issues. The CLR performing the memory management prevents your code from accessing memory directly, eliminating pointers, and greatly reducing crashes or other memory-overwrite behaviors.

The CLR also can enforce security, safeguarding against poor programming. Type safety is another feature that promotes robust, safe programs. Microsoft incorporated several features to promote proper code execution in C. For example, all dynamically allocated objects and arrays are initialized to zero. Although C does not initialize local variables automatically, its compiler warns you. When you access an array, the software automatically checks the application's range.

Potential Obstacles There are a few features that may present some challenges for you if you are not properly prepared. Many of the features of C will benefit your application develop only if you know how to use them properly. Other features, such as the conversion Wizard, work only in certain cases.

However, it is possible for a C program to call unmanaged code, which can cause many of the issues C and the. NET Framework were designed to fix. Any time you call legacy code without converting it to a managed environment, you are calling unmanaged code that runs directly on the operating system. If you transition from a managed to an unmanaged environment and back, there is associated overhead. C provides a utility to avoid overhead, which allows you to bypass the. NET memory management and receive memory directly. To avoid this issue, you must port all of your applications to the.

NET Framework, a potentially time consuming process that may or may not uphold your legacy application functionality. Because Microsoft now considers COM a legacy technology, it is not a native component in the. When using non-native components in any language, you see some performance declines. Calling legacy components in Visual Studio. Conclusion If you are comfortable with the development environment that you currently use, I recommend continuing with that environment. However, if you are a Visual Basic 6.

If you are a Visual Basic 6. While C was designed with the ease-of-use of Visual Basic in mind, the many syntactical changes may be challenging to learn. NET and starting to develop some simple C applications. You will find some challenges, but also some pleasant surprises. Inverted Pentagram Used in witchcraft and occult rituals to conjure up evil spirits. Satanists use it 2 points up and pagans use it one point up.

Any way it is used symbolizes evil. It matters not if two points are up or one. It matters not if it has a circle around it. It still is a symbol of Satan. Baphomet Unique to Satanism. A demonic deity and symbolic of Satan. Can be seen as jewelry It is also now being used by the masons. It can be seen on their buildings and the emblems the put on their vehicles to identify each other.

Represents the elements, earth, wind, fire and water with the spirit surrounding them. Hexagram It is one of the most potent symbols used in the working of the powers of darkness. Used to work magic. Check this site for info on a six pointed star of any kind. Freemason Watch Udjat or all seeing eye.

Below the eye is a tear because he mourns for those outside his influence. All seeing Eye Believed to be the eye of Lucifer and those who claim control of it have control of world finances. Hexes, curses, psychic control and all corruption are worked through this emblem. This one is a symbol of the Illuminati. This one is the basis of the New World Order.

See Government Propaganda for more info. Notice how it resembles the Udjat and is akin to the all seeing eye! Time Warner has a major monopoly on communications in the world. They control what you see and hear. They suppress the truth. Want to see a High Priestess who is wearing the symbol leading a ritual?

To them, Mathras was an "angel of light" or the "heavenly light". Unicorn horn and Leprechaun staff. Introduced by the Lord Druids of Scotland and Ireland. It is associated with good luck and good fortune. It is also used to ward off "Maluka" or the "Evil Eye". It also means satan will take care of your finances. Ankh Symbolizes fertility rites and the building up of lust within a person.

Also called the Long Life Seal. Upside Down Cross Symbolizes mockery and rejection of Jesus. Necklaces are worn by many satanist's. It can be seen on Rock singers and their album covers. Zodiac Used in satanic and occult worship. Practitioners are acknowledging their god as Baal or Lucifer. Horoscope signs are included Goat Head The horned goat, goat of mendes, Baphomet, god of the witches, the scapegoat. It's a Satanists way of mocking Jesus as the "Lamb" who died for our sins. Cross of Nero - Or Peace sign. Another sign that mocks the cross of Jesus. Also know as "The Dead Man Rune".

It appears on the tombstones of some of Hitler's SS troops. Yin-Yang In Chinese philosophy, two great opposite principles or forces on whose interplay everything depends. Yang is male, light and positive, Yin is female , dark and negative. Scarab Beetle The dung beetle which is the Egyptian symbol of reincarnation.

It is also a symbol of of Beelzebub, Lord of the flies satan. Worn by occultists to show that they have power and is a source of protection. Satanic "S" Represents a lightning bolt that means "Destroyer". In mythology, It was the weapon of Zeus. Worn to have power over others. Also was worn by the feared SS of Nazi Germany. Satanic Cross Upside down question mark that questions the Deity of God. Within the occult it is the representation of the three crown princes; Satan, Belial and leviathan. Symbolizes complete power under Lucifer. Star and Crescent Represents the moon goddess Dianna and the "son of the morning", the name of Lucifer in Isaiah Witchcraft uses it the way shown and Satanism turns it in the opposite direction.